Some interesting links that I have found:
- Electrostatic Machines
that I have built, machines built by others, and extensive materials,
with many pictures and full references, about most of the known types of
- Máquinas Eletrostáticas,
uma descrição dos modelos principais, com muitas figuras e textos
descritivos, em português.
- Exposição "Raios Artificiais", na
UFRJ em 2002.
- Mostra definitiva
sobre raios artificiais no Espaço COPPE, a partir de 2005.
- Science Hobbist page.
Includes some items about electrostatic machines.
- Theater of Electricity,
at the Museum of Science, Boston, USA. The first large Van de Graaff
generator, built in the 1930's, is now there. Many good pictures and
- The Gemmary sells old scientific
instruments and books.
Scientific Instruments sells electrostatic machines and other
devices. Has also reprints
of old books.
- Electropolis. A museum in
France devoted to electricity.
Polytechnique. In France. Some interesting pictures of unusual
machines (including the machines of Armstrong and Carré, and a double
Holtz machine) with descriptions. Some data about the builders is also
University Museum. Look for the quadruple Toepler-Holtz machine.
There are also other machines and curious demonstration devices that
work with static electricity.
la Storia dell'Universita di Pavia. In Italy. Many electrostatic
- The Bakken Library and Museum.
Several machines on display and interesting informations.
Applications. Source for books about modern applications of
electrostatics, and other informations.
- Teylers museum,
in the Netherlands. Displays the large electrostatic machine built by
van Marum in the XVIII century.
- Museum of Science and Industry,
in Chicago, USA. The large machine built by James Wimshurst in 1885 is
on display there (not on-line, but see it here).
at the N. C. State University, USA.
- Museu de Física da Universidade de
Coimbra. In Portugal. Shows several friction machines and many
- A dielectric
machine (Carré machine), at the Williston Northampton School, USA.
Interesting notebook pictures and other instruments too (closed).
- A simple
electrostatic generator using a PVC tube.
generators made with PVC parts, an extensive discussion about
Leyden jars, a forum, and some other devices. By Kelly H.
- Several machines, with excellent descriptions, can be found at this
site at the Urbino
University, in Italy.
- Animation of the charging system of a Pelletron,
- Several electrostatic machines are in the section about electricity of
the Musee de la
Physique, by Daniel Giroux, in France (closed).
- An excellent site, with description and plans for a Wimshurst
machine, By François Bossert, In Strasbourg, France.
- A page describing Lorente's
generator, in Spain.
Volts, by Lyonel Baum, in France. Has many informations about the
Van de Graaff machine, Marx generators, Tesla coils, and other
- Resonance Research
makes Van de Graaff generators and other devices.
- Description of a Wimshurst
machine and a Van de Graaff generator, built by Han van Gelderen.
Contains many pictures and detailed construction details (closed). His
Wimshurst machine can also be seen in my
- A good description of the Van
Graaff generator, at the University of Kentucky, USA.
- Another description of the Van
de Graaff generator.
gerador eletrostático de Van de Graaff, and other experiments with
static electricity, by Luiz Ferraz Netto, in Brazil (Portuguese). A very
complete site about the construction of Van de Graaff generators.
- Prof. Netto has a great site entitled Feira
de Ciências about basic physics experiments.
- Some electrostatic
machines, including Righi's electrometer and a Voss machine (not a
Holtz), in the Museo di Fisica dell'Universitá di Bologna, Italy.
- An electromagnetic
miscellany. Contains sections mentioning A. D. Moore (dirods),
hydroelectric machines, and many other subjects related to
electrostatics. By Dr. Colin Pounder.
- A large collection
electrostatic machines can be seen at the Museo de Fisica, at
Universitá "La Sapienza", in Rome, Italy. Of special interest are the
- This controversial document
contains many references to patents about electrostatic motors and
- A description of the restoration
of Wimshurst machines, and many other high-voltage projects, by
- A multiple Toepler-Holtz
machine can be seen at this interesting site about old medical devices.
- Plans for a Dirod
influence machine, and a kit, by Kevin Dunn.
- Description of the construction of a Wimshurst
machine, by Nino Reali, in Italian.
- There is an electrostatic
machine among the stars.
- A simple electrostatic
machine, in Italian.
- This site in Austria contains
interesting informations about the Wimshurst machine, Lord Kelvin's
water machine, and many other subjects (some quite weird).
- Museo del
Dipartimento di Fisica dell'Università di Perugia. In Italy. Many
instruments, including a Voss machine (not Holtz) and a large Wimshurst
- A large Toepler-Holtz
machine, at the Iowa State University, USA.
- A Ramsden machine, a curious Holtz machine with spark gaps at the
neutralizers, and several other instruments, can be seen at this museum,
in Venice, Italy.
- These pages show several interesting devices, including Bennet`s
- These pages about science toys, show a very
simple Van de Graaff generator, and other devices.
- Some videos
electrostatics, at Wake Forest University, USA.
- A site about electrostatic
machines. Mostly materials taken from other sites, including this.
- A Wimshurst
machine, at a museum at the University of Innsbruck, Austria.
Looks as this, with different Leyden jars.
There are also other machines and interesting devices in other pages.
- A Bonetti
machine with simple construction and electronic startup. By Liviu
- Instruments for Natural Philosophy,
by Thomas B. Greenslade Jr. Has a large collection of pictures of
electrostatic devices and other old instruments.
science, a curious site that has some old
texts about electricity, some serious, others not so...
Arts. They make nice Wimshurst machines
with classical appearance.
- A series of Wimshurst machines, built by
- Istituto e
Museo di Storia della Scienza, Firenze,
Italy. Has a good collection of electrostatic machines, some quite
unusual, on the on-line museum, and a lot of other materials too, as a
- Two small
Wimshurst machines, one made with CD disks. In Japanese.
- A big Wehrsen
machine. In this museum
in Bilbao, Spain. The picture is here.
Machines, in the Wikipedia.
cards showing a Holtz machine and a large friction machine (Search
- A Wommelsdorf
machine, and other instruments. Several electrostatic machines are
shown, including a rare Wommelsdorf
machine (looks restored).
- A big
machine in Budapest (Wikipedia).
- Bagliori nel vuoto.
An exposition at the Museo di Storia della Fisica - Universitá degli
Studi di Padova. Shows several friction machines and Holtz machines.
Many other instruments too.
- A Holtz
of the second kind. Liceo Ginnasio Virgilio Mantova, Italy.
- A Voss
machine. Museo di Fisica "F. Cicognini - G. Rodari", Italy.
- Two dirod machines
and a Wimshurst machine. Japanese.
- A Wimshurst
with a different drive mechanism, and many other devices, as this
machine, a Holtz
machine, etc. At Fondazione Scienza e Tecnica, Firenze, Italy.
- Two beautiful Holtz
is the other) can be seen here,
along with several other machines and instruments. Note the small
friction machines used to start the influence machines.
- Several electrostatic machines are shown in this site: Rapp
Instruments. In German.
- Plans for a Wimshurst
machine. Amateur Work Magazine, 1902.
- A commercial Wimshurst
- A Wimshurst
machine, at Harward University.
- A nice Wimshurst
machine, at the University of Michigan.
constructed electrostatic generators (German). An interesting long
text (a book, probably) showing a large Wimshurst machine and other
- In the "Museu
virtual" at the Escola Secundária de Avelar Brotero, Coimbra,
Portugal, large pictures of some electrostatic machines can be seen.
- A simplified
machine. Modern Mechanics, 1930.
- An interesting text about electricity and electrostatic
machines. At the Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand.
- Etranges machines
électriques (French). Shows a rare Wimshurst machine with large
- A Holtz
machine, at the University of Innsbruck. There are other
instruments, including other electrostatic machines, in this site about
great collection of old friction and influence machines, and also
many other electrostatic demonstration devices. By Eric Howe, in the
Machines, by James Wimshurst, Scientific American.
figures. Transcription of the original paper. A version
French. Shows the large electrophorus and the double
News. A collection of texts about early electricity. Other texts here (Italian).
- Telegraph Instruments of
Europe. Shows many old instruments, including some electrostatic
Several instruments, restored or rebuilt, including some electrostatic
Científicas. A series of devices built by José Martin Roldán,
including some electrostatic machines.
Wimshurst machines, with details on how to build one. Here
is another. Video and more pictures here.
- An interesting Toepler
machine, at the University of Graz. Look incomplete. The diagonal
brushes and combs appear to be insulated.
- Several electrostatic
machines, including a Wehrsen machine, at the Technical University
- A big
machine, at the Swiss Science Center Technorama.
- A Wehrsen
machine in a demonstration at the University of Bonn.
Winter machine, at Museo Galileo, Florence, Italy. There are other
machines there too, as this Ramsden
machine, at the LombardiaBeneCulturali site. Italy. This kind of
machine antecipated the Carré machine.
- A curious Wimshurst
machine with the structure made with cardboard, by Astromedia.
Other Sites About the History of Physics and
- The Center for the History of
Physics. Many links and other interesting materials.
- Telegraph's Lore.
A site dedicated to the history of the telegraph.
Artifacts. Contains reproductions of old articles on electric
devices used in medicine.
- A long text
about Otto von Guericke.
of Wireless. The history of Radio.
- WWW Virtual
Library History of Science, Technology & Medicine.
- United States
early radio history, by Thomas H. White. Articles and extracts
about the beginnings of radio.
A Discoverer, by John Tyndall. Take also a look at the other texts
- Landell de
Moura, Brazilian pioneer of radio. Shows extensive material,
patents, and links.
- Física e
Cultura. Informations about the discovery of X rays and its
repercussion in Brazil.
- Rádios antigos
no Brasil. Old radios, technical informations, historical
material, curiosities, etc., about the evolution of the radio.
- The International Union
of the History and Philosophy of Science has a site with extensive
references about old instruments.
- An article about Zamboni
and his dry pile. By M. Tinazzi.
- The museum of the Lycée
de garçons de Luxembourg shows many instruments, along with their
descriptions in old books and catalogs.
- The "Glasapparate-Museum
Cursdorf" shows tubes of the types developed by Geissler, Crookes,
Roentgen, De la Rive, and much more, all of them working. The director
of the museum is Wolfgang Linschmann, Schulstrasse 75, 98744 Cursdorf,
Thueringerwald, Germany. Phone: (49)36705-62028.
- How to construct an
efficient wireless telegraph apparatus at a small cost, by F.
Collins. Copy of an old article or the Scientific American, with plans
for a spark radio.
- Twenty First
Century Books. Several texts about the works of Nikola Tesla.
- Online Register of Scientific
Instruments. Shows a few electrostatic machines, but many other
- IEEE Virtual Museum. Has
extensive materials about the evolution of electricity and electronics.
- Museu de Ciência da
Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora has a rich collection of old
instruments. In Brazil.
- Hauchs Physike Cabinet. Shows a
great collection of old instruments.
- Sparkmuseum, has a very
complete collection covering most of the history of electricity and
magnetism, as this nice collection of old demonstration
devices for electrostatics.
- Js-lehrmittel, a
site in Germany showing nice reproductions of Geissler tubes and similar
- Mr. Static.
Interesting texts about electrostatics.
Classic Encyclopedia (closed).
- A scan of the book "The
electrician" (1947). From this
- Videos with
demonstrations of old instruments. By Paolo Brenni, Fondazione
Scienza e Tecnica, Florence.
- Percorsi elettrici. By
Carlo de Rubeis. Reconstructions of many classical devices, including
several electrostatic machines.
Other High-Voltage Devices:
- A Tesla
coil simulator program that I wrote (DOS). Computes exact
solutions for coupled resonator circuits. Some other programs
are also available, as the Inca
program, that computes inductances and mutual inductances.
- A page showing a set of formulas for the optimum design of a Tesla magnifier,
that I derived.
- Description of an old
coil system, and some old medical equipment, donated to the UFRJ
- My transformerless
- My capacitive
transformer Tesla coil.
- My directly
coupled Tesla magnifier.
- My (almost) classical
Tesla coil, with a flat primary coil and top load tuning.
- Descrição em português da
mesma Bobina de Tesla.
adicionais sobre bobinas de Tesla.
- My 6th-order
- Designing a
solid-state Tesla coil. Ideas about designing a SSTC as a bandpass
- Designing a
double resonance solid-state Tesla coil, for charging a capacitive
- Comments about how
to drive a DRSSTC.
- Experiments with
flybacks, and a "lifter".
- Note about how to design a current
- The Tela Coil Mailing List. A
place where to learn and discuss everything about Tesla coils.
- The Tesla
Ring. A ring of sites about Tesla coils.
- Jochen's High Voltage Page.
High voltage circuits using transformers, ignition coils, voltage
Voltage Page. Many high-voltage circuits and experiments with
ignition coils, etc..
Voltage Experimenter's Handbook, by Jim Lux. Many useful
informations about high-voltage techniques.
Stuff. Contains copies of old articles about construction of
induction coils, Leyden jars, and other things (closed).
- A simple "quick and dirty" Marx
- An induction
coil, built by Kurt Schraner.
- The Turn Of The Century
Electrotherapy Museum. Old Tesla coils and similar devices used in
- Dr. Megavolt. Impressive
demonstrations with Tesla coils.
- High Voltage Info. A
collection of articles about high voltage.
- Tesla Universe. Has all
the issues of TCBA News online.
- Project Gutenberg. Classical
Sourcebook. Many texts from various origins, covering the Middle
- Internet Classics Archive.
- The Perseus Digital Library.
Classical texts, with references and links.
- Gallica. An exceptional
collection of old books and periodicals on many subjects, including good
collections of the Comptes Rendus, Philosophical Transactions, Annalen
der Physik, etc.
- Internet Library of Early
Journals. A collection of 18th and 19th century periodicals.
- Le Conservatoire numérique
des Arts & Métiers. Many old books, including
several classical books about electricity, and a collection of La
- Physical Review Online Archive.
Physical Review, since 1893 (requires subscription).
- JSTOR. The Scholarly Journal
Archive. Many old periodicals. Of special interest are the journals
about mathematics (requires subscription).
- The Virtual
Laboratory, In the Max Plank Institute for the History of Science.
The library section contains a great collection of scanned texts,
including complete Max
trade catalogs, and a catalog by Robert
Voss showing Voss and Wimshurst machines.
- IoP Electronic Journals. Several
periodicals available, some going to the XIX century (requires
Science, 1800-1914. Trade catalogs, including a Kax Kohl catalog
(lower resolution than the one above), and many others with similar
periódicos da CAPES. Eighteen Century Collections Online (requires
XIX century (~1870), at the University of Wisconsin. OCR versions.
- Museo Galileo,
Florence, Italy. Has many electrostatic machines too, including this large
- Kinematic Models for
Design, Cornell University, USA.
- Jubilotèque. UPMC.
- Google Book Search. Finds many
old books and periodicals, including the rare "A
Journal of Natural Philosophy Chemistry and the Arts" (Nicholson's
Journal), from the New York Public Library.
- Internum -
Aristhot. Several old scanned books. (Some with wrong
identification, as Belli's
- Rare Book Room. Good scans
of many old books, including books by Benjamin Franklin.
- Digitizing the "Polytechnische
Journal", at the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.
- This was an old mania of mine. Here
is some data about my findings, with a catalog of all the hexaflexagons
up to order 10, and a program that designs any possible hexaflexagon.
by David King. The most complete site about the subject that I have
site (also this),
many references about hexaflexagons and papers about their theory. By H.
- A program
that makes templates for hexaflexagons with pictures on the faces.
- A page with a good
list of links about hexaflexagons.
On-line Book Stores:
- Google patent search.
Probably the easiest way to find patents.
- esp@cenet contains many patents
from several countries. You can find old patents, since about 1920,
giving the patent numbers. Free.
- United States Patent Office.
U. S. patents since 1790, in TIFF format. Free.
- GetThePatent contains all
the U. S. patents since 1790, fully indexed since 1976, in the
compressed CPC format. Only search is free.
- MSX programs. Software developed or adapted
by me in the 1980's. Em Português.
Some links may be broken.
Last update: 8 March 2015
Developed and Maintained by Antonio Carlos M. de