Electrostatic Machines - Papers

Below are most of the papers that I have found that contain material about electrostatic machines and some other high-voltage generators, and that I have verified.
The papers are in order of inclusion. Most of the fundamental papers, specially about influence machines, are present now. In some cases the text or images (maybe not very good) of the paper are available. Some papers are in the new djvu format, and to view them you need a proper decoder or plugin.


[p1] Zahn, Markus, Richard L. Goslin and Larry F. Wicks, "Self-excited, alternating, high-voltage generation using a modified electrostatic influence machine," American Journal of Physics, 42(4), Apr. 1974. p. 289-294. Describes a machine similar to the 2 disks Toepler machine, and an AC version using more than two disks.
[p2] A. Aresti and A. Delunas, "Two-inductor electrostatic generator," American Journal of Physics, 51(5), May 1983, pp. 472-. Describes a Voss-style machine.
[p3] L. C. Van Atta, D. L. Northrup, C. M. Van Atta, and R. J. Van de Graaff, "The design, operation, and performance of the Round Hill electrostatic generator," Physical Review, Vol. 49, May 1936, pp. 761-776. Describes the largest open-air electrostatic generator ever built, with many details about the construction and the charging system (5).
[p4] R. J. Van de Graaff, K. T. Compton, and L. C. Van Atta, "The electrostatic production of high voltage for nuclear investigations," Physical review, vol. 43, no. 3, February 1933, pp. 149-157. Initial description of the Round Hill Van de Graaff generator (5).
[p5] L. C. Van Atta, D. L. Northrup, R. J. Van de Graaff, and C. M. Van Atta, "Electrostatic generator for nuclear research at M. I. T.," Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 12, November 1941, pp. 534-545. Describes the modifications in the Round Hill generator when it was transferred to MIT.
[p6] M. A. Tuve, L. R. Hafstad, and O. Dahl, "High voltage technique for nuclear physics studies", Physical review, Vol. 48, pp. 315-337. Describes a particle accelerator and its Van de Graaff high voltage generator (5).
[p7] J. G. Trump, F. H. Merril, and F. J. Safford, "Van de Graaff generator for general laboratory use," Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 9, December 1938, pp. 398-403. Describes a 500 kV generator with the same design of more modern units.
[p8] A. W. Simon, "On the quantitative theory of the Wimshurst static machine. I," Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 4, February 1933, pp. 67-74. Idealized modeling of the Wimshurst machine.
[p9] A. W. Simon, "On the quantitative theory of the Toepler-Holtz static machine. II," Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 4, February 1933, pp. 75-82. Idealized modeling of the Toepler-Holtz machine.
[p10] O. Dahl, "Note on disk-type electrostatic generators," Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 7, June 1936, pp. 254-256. Discusses the use of a Toepler-Holtz-type generator as high-voltage generator for nuclear physics studies, comparing it with a Van de Graaff generator.
[p11] K. D. Skeldon, A.I. Grant, and S. A. Scott, "A high potential Tesla coil impulse generator for lecture demonstrations and science exhibitions," American Journal of Physics, Vol. 65 (8), pp. 744-754, August 1997. This is not about electrostatic devices, but about Tesla coils. Contains most of the important considerations, formulas, and references.
[p12] D. G. Bruns, "A solid-state low-voltage Tesla coil demonstrator," American Journal of Physics, Vol. 60, pp. 797-803, 1992. A demonstration Tesla coil is described, along with how to model it. Contains a curious formula for coupling coefficient calculation.
[p13] C. R. J. Hoffmann, "A Tesla transformer high-voltage generator," Rev. Sci. Instruments, Vol. 46, 1-4, 1975. Another Tesla coil, with the modeling discussed.
[p14] Silvanus P. Thompson, "The influence machine, from 1788 to 1888," Journal of the Society of Telegraph Engineers, Vol. XVIII, 1888, pp. 569-635. A very interesting and long paper, describing the evolution of the influence machine. Source of much of the material in J. Gray's book "Electrical Influence Machines". Contains many references.
[p15] M. Bertsch, "Sur un noveau générateur électrique ou électrophore continu," Comptes Rendus, vol. 63, 5 November 1866, page 771. Initial description of the Bertsch machine. Text.
[p16] A. Guerout, "Les dernières modifications de la machine de Holtz," La Lumière électrique, Vol. 4, 1881, pp. 181-185. Describes four variations of the Holtz machine, including the Voss machine. See also the letter by Holtz in page 303.
[p17] M. G. Planté, "La machine rhéostatique," La Lumière électrique, Vol. 4, 1881.Describes the Planté machine, and several experiments with Lichtenberg figures. See also the second part of the article, in the same volume.
[p18] A. Guerout, "Les machines Toepler," La Lumière électrique, Vol. 5, 1881, pp. 98-100.Describes some machines designed by Toepler. One of them is virtually identical to the Voss machine. Text: 1, 2, 3, 4.
[p19] A. Guerout, "Quelques observacions de M. Holtz sur les machines a influence," La Lumière électrique, Vol. 5, 1881, pp. 353-356. Describes some ideas for high voltage DC machines and experiments about an AC Holtz machine.
[p20] M. H. de Parville, "Note sur un électrophore multiplicateur à descharges continues," Comptes Rendus, Vol. 64, 1867, pp. 40-42. Describes a machine that is a mix of Holtz and Bertsch machines, with the objective of producing exponentially increasing voltages. (1)
[p21] M. de Parville, "Remarques relatives au nouveau générateur électrique ou électrophore continu, récemment décrit par M. Bertsch," Comptes Rendus, Vol. 63, 19 November 1866, p. 881. The author mentions the previous invention by M. Piche of the same machine. Text
[p22] M. Bertsch, "Réponse aux remarques de M. de Parville concernant l'analogie qu'offrirait un appareil précédemment décrit, avec l'électrophore continu.", Comptes Rendus, Vol. 63, 26 November 1866, p. 910. Bertsch says that the machine of M. Piche was not identical to his, due to the use of a highly lossy paper disk. Text.
[p23] M. Piche, "Nouvelles remarques, concernant la priorité de l'invention de l'électrophore continue," Comptes Rendus, Vol. 64, 11 February 1867, p. 260. Piche says that his machine works in the same way of the Bertsch machine, being only of less perfect construction. Text. There is a reference to another letter by Bertsch in page 356, apparently not published.
[p24] (J. Wimshurst) "Les machines à influence de Wimshurst," La Lumière électrique, Vol. 14, October 1884, pp. 147-148. Describes the Wimshurst-Holtz machine and the Wimshurst machine. Taken from the journal l'Elektrotechnishe Zeitschrift.
[p25] M. A. Hillairet, "Machine à influence du type de M. Wimshurst," La Lumière électrique, Vol. 18, 12 December 1885, pp. 502-505. Describes the Wimshurst machine and how it works. Text: 1, 2, 3, 4.
[p26] G. Pellissier, "La machine électrique au siècle dernier," La Lumière électrique, Vol. 22, 9 October 1886, pp. 68-76, and 16 October 1866, pp. 106-117. A very complete article about the development of the friction machine in the XVIII century.
[p27] Fuchs, La Lumière électrique, 13 June 1885, pp. 517-518. Description of a machine that appears to be a variation of the Bonetti machine with extensions on the charge collectors.
[p28] G. Pellissier, "Sur l'histoire des électrométres," La Lumière électrique, 6 July 1889, pp. 16-26, 13 July 1889, pp. 73-81, 20 July 1889, pp. 111-122, and 27 July 1889, pp. 178-187. A long article with the history of the methods for the measurement of static electricity.
[p29] P. V. Schaffers, "Sur la théorie de la machine Wimshurst," Annalles de Chimie et de Physique, 7th series, 1895, Tome V, pp. 132-144. Discusses changes in the disposition of the charge collectors in the Wimshurst machine that increase its output current. Text (djvu).
[p30] S. Leduc, "étude sur la machine de Wimshurst," L'éclairage électrique, 20 August 1898, p. 309. Discusses a technique similar to the one of Schaffers to improve the output current, and discusses how to use the machine as power supply for X-Ray work.
[p31] M. L. Lebiez, "Nouvelle machine électrostatique a influence," L'électricien, 13 April 1895, pp. 225-227. Describes a machine that is a double influence machine, as the Belli machine, made with disks. A simplified Voss machine, with the output connected to the inductor plates. Text: 1,2,3.
[p32] P. V. Schaffers, "Sur la théorie de la machine Wimshurst,"; Comptes Rendus, 5 September 1894, pp. 535-537. The same material of [p29], in an earlier and shorter version.
[p33] W. Holtz, "Ueber eine neue Elektrisirmaschine," Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, CXXVI, pp. 157-171, 1865. First description of the classic Holtz machine. Continues in CXXVII, pp. 320-327, 1866.
[p34] A. Toepler, "Ueber die Erzeugung einer eigenthümlichen Art von intensiven elektrischen Strömmen vermittelst eines Influenz-Elektromers," Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, CXXV, pp. 469-496, 1865. First description of the first Toepler machine.
[p35] W. Holtz, "On an electrical induction machine," Philosophical Magazine, Vol. XXX, 4th. series, July-December 1865, pp. 159-160. A note describing Holtz' first machine, an AC device. Translation from the Berliner Berichte, April 1865.
[p36] W. Holtz, "On a new electrical machine," Philosophical Magazine, Vol. XXX, 4th. series, December 1865, pp. 425-433. Paper describing the classic Holtz machine. Translation from Pogg. Ann., CXXVI, p. 157-171, October 1865. Text (djvu).
[p37] M. Gaugain, "Sur une nouvelle machine électrique par M. Holtz, de Berlin," Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 4th series, Vol. VIII, 1866, pp. 201-320. Describes the classic Holtz machine. Extract from Pogg. Ann., CXXVI, p. 157-171, October 1865.
[p38] M. Gaugain, "Sur un nouvel électromoteur; par M. Toepler, de Riga," Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 4th series, Vol. VIII, 1866, pp. 313-320. Comments the original Toepler machine. Extract from Pogg. Ann., CXXV, p. 469-496, August 1865.
[p39] A. Töpler, "Vergleichende Versuche über die Leistungen der Influenz-Maschine mit und ohne Metall-Belegung," Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, CXXVII, No. 2, pp. 177-198, 1866. Compares machines with and without metallic sectors, and describes the symmetrical Toepler machine with 2 disks.
[p40] W. Holtz, "Die Darstellung des elektrischen Funkens in Glas mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Elektrisirmaschine," Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, CXXX, pp. 118-127, 1867. Study about glass in electrostatic machines (?)
[p41] W. Holtz, "Ueber die höhere Ladung isolirender Flächen durch Seitenanziehung und die Uebertragung dieses Princips auf die Construction von Influenzmaschinen," Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, CXXX, pp. 128-137, 1867. The Holtz machine of the second kind. Continues in pp. 168-171.
[p42] W. Holtz, "Ueber Influenzmaschinen für hohe Dichtigkeit mit festen influenzirenden Fläschen," Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, CXXX, pp. 287-302, 1867, High-voltage Holtz machines.
[p43] A. Töpler, "Zur Construction und Leistung der Elektrophor-Maschine (Influenz-Maschine)," Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, CXXX, pp. 518-535, 1867.First Toepler machine with a single rotating disk. Not yet identical to the Voss.
[p44] P. Riess, "Ueber Doppel-Influenz und die Theorie der Elektrophormaschinen," Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, CXXXI, pp. 215-236, 1867.A study about double influence and several structures for influence machines.
[p45] J. C. Poggendorff, "Zwei ältere Influenzmaschinen in neuer Gestalt," Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, CXXXVI, pp. 171-173, 1869. Shows two machines designed by Holtz: a Holtz machine with diagonal neutralizer, and a machine that is identical to a sectorless Wimshurst machine with charge collected from just one disk.
[p46] T. Schwedoff, "Ueber die Vertheilung der Elektricität an den Scheiben der Holtz'schen Maschine und über eine vortheilhafte Abänderung in der Einrichtung derselben," Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, CXLIV, pp. 597-608, 1871. Describes the Schwedoff machine, consisting of a modified Holtz machine and a device that generates high output current.
[p47] J. C. Poggendorff, "Beitrag zur näheren Kenntniss der Elektromaschine zweiter Art," Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, CL, no. 9, pp. 1-30, 1873. A long study about the Holtz machine of the second kind.
[p48] J. C. Poggendorff, "Fernere Thatsachen zur Begründung einer endgültigen Theorie der Elektromaschine zweiter Art," Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, CLVI, pp. 78-98, 1875. More about the Holtz machine of the second kind.
[p49] W. Holtz, Einige weitere Versuche zur Verbesserung der einsachen Influenzmaschine," Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, CLVI, pp. 627-638, 1875. Experiments to improve the Holtz machine, including use of ebonite disks.
[p50] A. Toepler, "Zur Kenntniss der Influenzmaschine und ihrer Leistungen," Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, pp. 56-60, February 1880. Discusses recent developments at that time
[p51] W. Holtz, "Experimentelle Beiträge zur Theorie der Influenzmaschinen," Annalen der Physik und Chemie, XIII, pp. 623-640, 1881.
[p52] A. Toepler, "Influenzmaschine und Induktorium," Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, pp. 366-373, October 1882. Describes a large machine with 20 rotating disks.
[p53] W. R. Pidgeon, "An influence machine," Philosophical Magazine, XXXVI, pp. 267-271, July-December 1893. Desctibes a modified Wimshurst machine, with embedded sectors and extra inductors to increase the output current.
[p54] W. R. Pidgeon, "An influence machine," Philosophical Magazine, XLVI, pp. 564-567, July-December 1898. Describes an improved version of Pidgeon's machine.
[p55] A. Righi, "Descrizione di un elettrometro ad induzione," Nuovo Cimento, Vol. VII-VIII, pp. 123-134, 1872. Describes Righi's induction electrometer, a direct precursor of the Van de Graaff generator.
[p56] A. Righi, "Sur le principle de Volta," Journal de Physique Th. et Appl., III, pp. 19-23, 1874. Another description of Righi's machine, with a good drawing.
[p57] Provenzali, "Sulle macchine elettriche ad influenza," Atti dell'Accademia Pontificia de'Nuovi Lincei, XXIV, pp. 271-273, 1871. Suggests some improvements in the Holtz machine
[p58] Provenzali, "Sulle macchine ad influenza," Atti dell'Accademia Pontificia de'Nuovi Lincei, XXV, pp. 371-377, 1872. Current measurements with a Holtz machine powered by a descending weight.
[p59] A. Righi, "Sulla penetrazione delle cariche elettriche nei coibenti fissi ed in movimento con applicazione alla teoria dei condensatori, dell'elettroforo e delle macchine ad induzione," Memorie Acc. Sc. R. Ist. di Bologna, VI, pp. 87-157, 1875. Comments the theory of many machines, and describes a new one, where the charge transport is made by a rubber cord with metal rings.
[p60] T. Cavallo, "Of the Methods of manifesting the Preference, and ascertaining the Quality, of small Quantities of Natural or Artificial Electricity," Philosophical Transactions, LXXVIII, pp. 1-22, 1788. Comments on Bennet's doubler, describing experiments that show that it is not practical as a charge amplifier for precise measurements, because it self-excites, quickly multiplying small charges that are ever present.
[p61] G. Belli, "Di una nuova maniera de Macchina elettrica," Ann. di Sci. d. R. Lomb.-Venet., I, pp. 111, 1831. Describes Belli's machine of the box type. Reprint in "La Fisica a Pavia Nell'800 e '900, Scritti de Giuseppe Belli", Università degli Studi di Pavia, 1988.
[p62] G. Fuller, "Machine à influence à jet d'eau," La Lumiére électrique, Vol. 33, 39, 28 September 1889, pp. 623-626. A variation of Lord Kelvin's water machine [p91]. Text: 1, 2, 3, 4.
[p63] A. W. Simon, "On the theory of the Van de Graaff electrostatic generator," American Journal of Physics, Vol. 22, pp. 318-326, 1954. Quantitative analysis of the operation of the Van de Graaff generator, following the lines of the older articles of the author about influence machines [p8][p9].
[p64] A. Kundt, "Ueber eine veränderte Construction der Elektrisirmaschine," Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, CXXXV, pp. 484-493, 1868. The Kundt machine.
[p70] J. C. Poggendorff, "Ueber das Holtz'sche Rotationphänomen," Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, CXXXIX, pp. 513-546, 1870. Discusses electrostatic motors based on influence machines.
[p71] H. Wommelsdorf, "Die Condensatormaschine. Eine neue Anordnung zur Erregung von Influenz-elektricität," Annalen der Physik, 9, 21 October 1902, pp. 651-659. The original condenser machine. Text (djvu).
[p72] H. Wommelsdorf, "Vereinfachtes Verfahren zur Herstellung vielpoliger Kondensatormaschinen, eine Methode zur Berechnung derselben, sowie eine Hochfrequenz-kondensatormaschine," Annalen der Physik, 16, 24 February 1905, pp. 334-349. Multipole machines. Text (djvu).
[p73] H. Wommelsdorf, "Einfluß der Polarisatorstellung auf die Stromleistung der Influenzmaschinen mit Doppeldrehung," Annalen der Physik, 15, 6 December 1904, pp. 842-854. Influence of the angle or the neutralizers in Wimshurst-type machines. Text (djvu).
[p74] H. Wommelsdorf, "Über den Scheibenabstand der Influenzmaschinen (schädliche Ladungen, Ozongebläse)," Annalen der Physik, 15, 23 December 1904, 1019-1025. Comments about disk spacing in influence machines. Text: 1, 2, 3, 4.
[p75] H. Wommelsdorf, "Ein neues allgemeines Polarisationssystem der Influenzmaschinen," Physikalische Zeitschrift, 6, 15 March 1905, pp. 177-186. About the operation of several types of influence machines. Text: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.
[p76] H. Wommelsdorf, "Über die Abhängigkeit von Polarisatorwiderstand , Scheibendicke und Sheibenabstand der Influenzmaschinen," Annalen der Physik, 23, 9, 22 August 1907, pp. 601-608.Text (djvu).
[p77] H. Wommelsdorf, "Eine neue Art von Influenzmaschinen mit allseits in festes Isolationsmaterial eingebetten Sektoren," Annalen der Physik, 23, 9, 22 August 1907, pp. 609-625. Continues in 24, 11, 26 November 1907, pp. 483-491. The Wehrsen machine, with illustrations. Text: part 1, part 2 (djvu).
[p78] "Machines d'induction électrostatique sans secterus," La Nature, 1089, 14 April 1894, pp. 305-306. Describes the Bonetti machines, with disks, and a big machine using cylinders (3).
[p79] Andre J. Picolet, Letter to the editor, Scientific American, May 26, 1894, p. 325. Mentions [p78], and shows a similar machine, with combs instead of brushes, built by the author in 1892. In the same page and the following is a translation of [p78].
[p80] H. Wommelsdorf, "Verbesserungen an Kondensatormaschinen," Annalen der Physik, 39, 11, 24 September 1912, pp. 1201-1206. Discusses improvements in the condenser machine (1).
[p81] H. Wommesldorf, "Die Kondensatormaschine, ein neuer elektrostatischer Erzeuger hochgespannten Gleichstroms," Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, 3, 15 January 1914, pp. 61-64. Presents new versions of the condenser machine.
[p82] H. Strauch, "Die elektrostatischen Maschinen," Physikalische Zeitschrift, XXXVI, 24 June 1935, pp. 575-584. Presents a mathematical theory about the working of influence machines.
[p83] H. Wommelsdorf, "Über die Abhängigkeit der Stromstärke, Leistung sowie des Wirkungsgrades der Influenzmaschinen von dem Entladepotential," Physikalische Zeitschrift, 5, 1 December 1904, pp. 792-796. Describes a machine with pairs of disks rotating in opposite directions, similar to a multiple Wimshurst machine. Text (djvu).
[p84] H. Wommelsdorf, "Eine neue Polarisatorshaltung für Influenz- und Kondensatormaschinen," Annalen der Physik, 4, 63, 1920, pp. 295-300. Describes the Condenser machine in its last version, with disks with embedded sectors accessed through their edges. Text (djvu).
[p85] H. Leyser, "Ueber eine neue Elektromaschine nach dem Principe von Holtz," Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, CXLIX, 1873, pp. 587-590. The Leyser machine.
[p86] N. J. Felici, "Machines électrostatiques puissantes," Journal de Physique et le Radium, VIII, IX, February 1948, pp. 66-80. Discusses several machines derived from the Toepler machine, with external excitation and insulation by compressed gas. There was a previous article with the same title in January 1946 and a continuation in vol. VIII, X, April 1949, pp. 137-144.
[p87] E. Péclet, "Condensateur électrique," Annales de Chimie et Physique, 3rd series, II, pp. 100-103, 1841. A condenser electroscope similar to Bennet's doubler, but with charge multiplication by addition instead of multiplication. Cited in [p25]. Text (djvu).
[p88] A. Bennet, "An Account of a Doubler of Electricity," Philosophical Transactions, XLVII, 1787, pp. 288-296. Bennet's Doubler (1).
[p89] F. Carré, "Sur une machine électrique à frottement et à induction," Comptes Rendus, 67, 1341, 1868. Carré machine (1)
[p90] M. Bertsch, "Nouvelle machine électrique," Le Magazin Pittoresque, 1, 1867, pp. 135-136. Bertsch machine, with a picture (1).
[p91] William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, "On a self-acting apparatus for multiplying and maintaining electric charges, with applications to illustrate the voltaic theory," Proceedings of the Royal Society, June 20, 1867. From Reprints of Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism, Macmillan & Co., London, 1872. Lord Kelvin's water machine. See also [p62]. Text (djvu) (1).
[p92] William Thomson, Lord Kelvin, "On electrical machines founded on induction and convection," Philosophical Magazine, January 1868. From Reprints of Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism, Macmillan & Co., London, 1872. Lord Kelvin's "replenisher". Text (djvu) (1).
[p93] W. Musaeus, "Ueber eine neue Verbesserung der Holtz'schen Influenzmaschine mit entgegengesetzt rotîrenden Scheiben, wodurch die doppelte Menge der Elektricität erzeugt werden kann," Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, CXLIII, 1871, pp. 285-289. Experiments with a machine that is identical to a sectorless Wimshurst machine with dislocated charge collectors to double the output current (1).
[p94] W. Holtz, "Einige wesentliche Verbesserungen an einfachen und zuzammengesetzten Influenzmaschinen," Nachrichten von der Königliche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften und der G. A. Universität zu Göttingen, No. 7, pp. 133-157, 1876. Long article about variations of the Holtz machine, without pictures. Said to mentions a sectored machine similar to the Wimshurst machine [26], but I see only a mention to Toepler's structure (2).
[p95] L. Bleekrode, "Experimentelle Untersuchung über Elektromaschinen mit Ebonitscheiben," Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie. CLVI, 7, 278-307, July 1875. Long paper describing experiments with Holtz machines using ebonite disks. Has many rare references (1).
[p96] Ch. Bontemps, "Les nouvelles machines électriques," La Nature, 213, pp. 75-78, 30 June 1877. Describes several influence machines that appears on Mascart's book(3).
[p97] "Nouvelles machines électriques d'influence," La Nature, 555, pp. 117-118, 19 January 1884 (not 1883, as written in page 113). Shows the machines of Voss and Wimshurst. The drawing of the Voss machine is different from the usual, with the appropriating brushes in contact with the charge collectors. The description of the Wimshurst machine is one of the earliest (3).
[p98] R. G. Herb, D. B. Parkinson and D. W. Kerst, "The development of an electrostatic generator operating under high air pressure," Physical Review, 51, pp. 75-84, January 1937. First description of a Van de Graaff generator operating in compressed air and using a column of equipotential rings (5).
[p99] J. G. Trump and R. J. Van de Graaff, "A compact pressure-insulated electrostatic X-ray generator," Physical Review, 55, pp. 1160-1166, June 1939. Another Van de Graaff generator operating in compressed gas, with equipotential rings (5).
[p100] R. J. Van de Graaff, J. G. Trump, and W. W. Buechner, "Electrostatic generators for the acceleration of charged particles," Reports on Progress in Physics, 11, no. 1, 1946-1947, pp. 1-18. A review on the development of the Van de Graaff generator and some other tipes of electrostatic generators (4).
[p101] James Wimshurst, "Alternating and experimental influence machine," Proc. Phys. Soc. London, 11, No. 1, pp. 125-130, June 1890. Wimshurst's alternating machine (4).
[p102] James Wimshurst, "A new form of influence-machine," Proc. Phys. Soc. London, 12, No. 1, pp. 403-406, October 1892. A machine simular to a double Holtz machine of the first kind with neutralizer, without and with sectors (4).
[p103] G. Fuller, "Water-spray influence-machine," Proc. Phys. Soc. London, 10, 1, 132-138, June 1888. The same machine described in [p62]. Text. (4).
[p104] Silvanus P. Thompson, "On a modified water-dropping influence-machine," Proc. Phys. Soc. London, 9, 1, 137-138, April 1888. A version of Lord Kelvin's machine with three containers in series. Text. (4).
[p105] "Improved Electrical Machine," Scientific American, June 1867, p. 380. Shows a Holtz machine with four inductors, that also appears in [5] (6).
[p106] William Nicholson, "Ueber die Instrumente, welche bestimmt sind, sehr kleine Grade von Electricität zu verstärken und merkbar zu machen, nach einigen zerstreuten Aussätzen, vorzüglich", Annalen der Physik, B. 9, St. 2, 1801, pp. 121-157. A paper about doublers, with extensive comments and references, Several drawings (1).
[p107] M. G. C. Bohnenberger, "Beschreibung einfacher Zusammensetzungen des Bennetschen und des Nicholsonschen Electricitätverdopplers, so wie es Cavallo'schen Multiplicators, nebst einer Untersuchung, wie weit man sich auf diese Instrumente verlassen kann," Annalen der Physik, B. 9, St. 2, 1801, pp. 158-187. Description of several doublers, with drawings (1).
[p108] J. C. Poggendorff, "Ueber einige neue, mekwürdige Eigenschaften des diametralen Conductors der Elektromaschine, und eine darauf gegründete Doppelmaschine dieser Art," Annalen der Physik und Chemie, CXLI, pp. 161-205, 1870. Describes a double Holtz machine, with the rotating disks facing each other (1).
[p109] W. Wilson, "Description of a compound electrical instrument for condensing and doubling: with experiments," Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and the Arts, Vol. IX, pp. 19-24, September 1804. Original description of Wilson's machine (7).
[p110] A. Volta, "Lettere sull' elettroforo perpetuo", "Scelta de Opuscoli interessanti de Milano, " Vol. 8, p. 127, 1775. Reprinted in "Collezione dell' opere del cavaliere Conte Alessandro Volta," Patrizio Comasco, Firenze, 1816 (7). (The picture is this).
[p111] W. R. Pidgeon, "Une machine à influence," La Lumière Électrique, t. LI (1894), pp. 477-479. A modified Wimshurst machine. The same described in [p53]. Text. (3).
[p112] d'Arsonval, Description of the Bonetti machine, La Lumière Électrique, t. LI (1894), p. 366-367. Article usually cited as the first reference to the Bonetti machine, but it mentions correspondence from Wimshurst in the previous year. Text. (3).
[p113] M. R. Radau, "Études physiques sur l'Exposition Unniverselle de 1867, " Le moniteur scientifique de Quesneville, deuxième série, tome IV, 1867, pp. 550-563. A curious description of several doublers, multipliers, and rotating electrostatic machines. Mentions electromagnetic machines too (7).
[p114] "Description de l'instrument appelé Duplicateur ou Doubleur d'Électricité de John Read," Annales de Chimie, tome XXIV, October 1797, pp. 327-332. Description, with picture, of John Read's doubler (7).
[p115] Desormes and Hachette, "Vom dem Elektricitätsverdoppler," Annalen der Physik, XVII, 1804, 414-427. Improved rotating doubler, similar to the versions by Nicholson and Read, with picture. (7)
[p116] "Description de l'instrument appelé Doubleur d'Electricité," Journal de physique, de chimie et d'histoire naturelle et des arts, Vol. II, July 1794, pp. 462-472. Description of Read's doubler, extracted from the Bibliotheque Britannique, with a good picture. The same article appears in the Bibliotheque Britannique, Vol III, 1796, pp. 272-281 (strangely after the reference. A reprint?). (7).
[p117] Henry Upington, "Account of an electrical Increaser for the unerring Manifestation of small Portions of the Electric Fluid," Philosophical Magazine, Vol 52, 1818, p. 47-52. Shows a device that is an improved Cavallo's multiplier, that can also be used as a doubler. With picture. (7).
[p118] Filipo Cecchi, " Macchine dielettrica," Rivista Scientifico-Industriale di Guido Vimercati, Florence, July-August 1872. Text. (found inside this book by Daguin, after page 122, from 1867. Not clear if  part of the book).
[p119] Tito Martini, "Filipo Cecchi," L´Ateneo Veneto, XII, I, Venice 1888. (7)
[p120] Desormes et Hachette, "Du doubleur d'électricité," Annales de Chimie, 49, 1803, pp. 45-54. Similar to p115. (7).
[p121] Desormes et Hachette, "Memoire pour servir à l'histoire de cette partie de l'électricité qu'on nomme galvanisme," Annales de Chimie, 44, 1802, pp 267-284. Many experiments with the doubler of electricity. Text.
[p122] Hachette, "Description de l'instrument appelé Duplicateur ou Doubleur d'électricité de John Read," Annales de Chimie, Vol. 24, 1797, pp. 327-332. Description of John Read's doubler, another scan of p114, with picture. Text.
[p123] G. Fuller, "Model of a small electrical machine", Philosophical Magazine, Vol. II, Series 5, July-December 1876, pp. 108-109. A curious double electrophorus machine. Text.

My first sources for these papers were the Rare Book Library of the UFRJ, the Library of the UFRJ Physics Institute, the library of the CBPF, and many references and old papers that I received from friends, specially Lucia De Frenza, from Italy, Hans Bussmann, from Germany, Serge Klein, from France, and Lance Jerale, from the USA.
More recently, many old references appeared on digital libraries in the Internet, some of them listed below and referenced in the list above. The available scans vary in quality, and may have serious problems, specially in Google books, where picture pages of old books, almost always big folded pages at the end of the books, were scanned folded. Other common problems are incorrect names of the works, incorrect dates of periodicals, works that should be in the public domain but are not available for full view, and missing volumes. But anyway, these collections are far more accessible that libraries of real dusty old books.

1) These papers can be found at Gallica. Probably others too.
2) Available at the Göttingen State and University Library.
3) Available at Le Conservatoire numérique des Arts et Métiers.
4) Available at IoP Electronic Journals.
5) Availble at the Physical Review Online Archive.
6) Available at The Nineteenth Century in Print.
7) Can be found at Google Books. Probably others too.

Developed and Maintained by Antonio Carlos M. de Queiroz.
Created: 1996
Last update: 17 March 2017.