Electrostatic Machines - References

Below are listed the reference books mentioned in the main document, and others related. These books contain the original pictures, data that I used for constructions, and additional informations about electrostatic machines and other related devices.


[1] L. Graetz, "Die Elektrizitat und ihre Anwendungen", University of Munich, 1928. (1939 brazilian edition from Editora Melhoramentos, with title "A Eletricidade".). Many illustrations and a light text about all aspects of electricity at that time.
[2] O. Murani, "Tratado de Física", G. Gili, Barcelona, 1924. General physics, with many line drawing pictures.
[3] J. Frick, "Physical Technics; or Practical Instructions for Making Experiments in Physics", J. B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 1862. Many good pictures, and detailed instructions for the construction of many devices. Shows the Winter machine in detail.
[4] J. Gray, "Electrical Influence Machines", Whittaker & Co., London, 1890. Very complete book with excellent pictures, the complete history of the development of the electrostatic influence machines, and practical construction instructions. Available here.
[5] V. E. Johnson, "Modern High-Speed Influence Machines", E. & F. N. Spon, London, 1922. A review of the last developments by the turn of the century, and detailed descriptions of experiments made by the author with more efficient machines.
[6] H. Pellat, "Léçons sur L'Életricité", Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1890. Similar to the next book.
[7] H. Pellat, "Cours D'Éelectricité", Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1901. Strong theory, and a good chapter on electrostatic machines, with their history well described.
[8] R. A. Ford, "Homemade Lightning", McGraw-Hill, 1996. Description and complete plans for a motorized sectorless Wimshurst machine and for a Van de Graaff generator. Includes also reprints of old papers and many experiments with static electricity.
[9] O. D. Chwolson, "Lehrbuch der Physik", 1908. Contains an original chapter on electrostatic machines, with good pictures and many references.
[10] A. D. Moore, "Electrostatics, exploring, controlling, and using static electricity", 2nd edition, Laplacian Press, 1997. Contains much information about practical uses of electrostatics, and describes many curious devices that can be used to illustrate, or just to play with, the subject.
[11] H. Pécheux, "Traité Théorique et Pratique D'électricité", Librarie Ch. Delagrave, Paris, 1904. Contains a short chapter on electrostatic machines, showing several Bonetti machines at the end, as the most advanced at that time.
[12] A. Turpain, "Leçons Élémentaires de Physique", Vuibert et Nony, Paris, 1906. Contains a short chapter on machines, some photos, and some more modern material.
[13] O. D. Chwolson, "Tratado de Física", IX, Feliu y Susanna, Barcelona, 1920. The same that [9], in a spanish translation.
[14] C. Drion and É Fernet, "Traité de Phisique Élémentaire", Masson et Cie, Paris, 1900. A general physics book, with good illustrations.
[15] P. F. Schurmann, "Historia de la Fisica", Editorial Nova, Buenos Aires, 1945. Biografies of many early researchers, and historical material.
[16] B. Dibner, "Early Electrical Machines", Burndy Library, Norwalk, 1957. Excellent book on the history of the friction machine.
[17] Catalog from Max Kohl A.-G., Chemnitz, Germany, 1927. Beautiful catalog with many high-quality engravings of all kinds of instruments.
[18] Catalog from E. Leybold's Nachfolger A.-G., Koln, Germany, 1927. Another beautiful catalog full of high-quality engravings.
[19] A. F. Weinhold, "Physikalishe Demonstrationen", Johan Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig, Germany, 1931. Describes in detail the Leyser machine, Weinhold's version of it, and many other devices.
[20] Sir William Snow Harris, "A Treatise on Frictional Electricity", Virtue and Co., London, 1867.Good reference about friction machines and many other electrostatic devices, with construction details discussed.
[21] W. D. Hackmann, "Electricity from Glass, The history of the frictional electrical machine, 1600-1850," Sijthoff & Noordhoff, The Netherlands, 1978. Discusses in great historical detail de development of the frictional machine and its use in the early studies about electricity. That Latin quote in the main page is written in a machine shown in the book..
[22] Catalog from E. Leybold's Nachfolger A.-G., Cologne, Germany, 1921. Similar to [18], but with some different instruments shown.
[23] John Gray, "Les Machines Électriques a Influence," Gauthiers-Villars et Fils, Paris, 1892. A French translation of [4], or a posterior edition, with some added material.
[24] Julien Lefèvre, "Dictionnaire d'Électricité et de Magnétisme," J.- B. Bailliére et Fils, Paris, 1891. A beautifully illustrated book, covering all aspects of the area at that time.
[25] P. A. Daguin, "Traité Élémentaire de Physique," Lib. Ch. Delagrave, Paris, 1878. Has a good chapter on electrostatic machines, up to the Holtz machines.
[26] V. Schaffers, "La machine à influence". Gauthier-Villars, 1908. Extensive, very complete book about influence machines.
[27] F. Luscia, "La Tecnologia delle Macchine Elettrostatiche," Giulio Vannini, Brescia, Italy, 1928. A good review of everything from friction machines to the influence machines of the early 20th century. Contains many references.
[28] M. E. Mascart, "Traité D'Électricité Statique," Libraire de L'Académie de Médecine, Paris, 1876. An important reference work, going up to the Holtz machines.
[29] V. Schaffers, "Essai sur la Théorie des Machines Électrique a Influence," Gauthier-Villars & Fils, Paris, 1898. Extract from the Annales de la Societé scientifique de Bruxelles, 1898. Describes all the classic machines, with simple schematic drawings. Many references.
[30] S. R. Bottone, "Radiography and the 'X' Rays," Whittaker & Co., New York, 1898. Describes how to make early X ray machines, and includes detailed construction details of a Wimshurst machine
[31] J. L. Breton, "Rayons Cathodiques et Rayons X," Librairie E. Bernard et Cie., Paris, 1897. Illustrated book with extensive material about early X ray systems. Shows a Bonetti machine.
[32] L. Graetz, "Handbuch der Elektrizität und des Magnetismus," Verlag von Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig, 1912. Contains an excellent chapter on influence machines, written by W. Schmidt (I have seen only this part of the book).
[33] J. A. Fleming, "The Principles of Electric Wave Telegraphy and Telephony," 2nd. ed., Longmans, Green, and Co., London, 1910. An extensive book about early radio systems (nothing about electrostatics).
[34] Catalog from the Alfred Wehrsen company, Berlin, Germany, 1921. Describes the insulated Holtz-type machine known as the Wehrsen machine, Wommelsdorf's idea. Describes also Wimshurst machines and accessories.
[35] A. Partzsh, "Handbuch der Voltana-Experimente". Complement of [34] (apparently) with detailed descriptions of the use of the "Voltana" Wimshurst machines and accessories. Partial text.
[36] A. Turpain, "La Télégraphie sans Fil et les Applications Pratiques des Ondes Électriques," 2nd. edition, Gauthiers-Villars, Paris, 1908. Nice book about early oscillatory circuits and radio. Shows some electrostatic machines.
[37] J. L. Heilbron, "Electricity in the 17th and 18th Centuries," Dover publications inc., New York, 1999. Extensive discussion about the initial development of electricity. Not much about machines, but many interesting informations.
[38] L'Électricité a l'exposition de 1900. (details to complete). Extensive description of the state of the art in electricity by 1900.
[39] Ulrich Neubert, "Elektrostatische Generatoren," Verlag von R. Oldenbourg, München und Berlin, 1942. Discusses mainly Van de Graaff generators for research applications, but other devices too.
[40] Noël J. Felici, "Elektrostatische Hochspannungs-Generatoren and ihre industrielle Anwendung," Verlag G. Braun, Karlsruhe, 1957. Extensive discussion of Felici generators and other devices.
[41] "Una Scuola nel Tempo - documenti e collezioni dell'Istituto Tecnico Pier Crescenzi," Edizioni Grafis -Bologna1995.
[42] Augusto Righi, "La Telegrafia Senza Filo," Bologna, 1905.
[43] Henry M. Noad, "Lectures on Electricity," George Knight and Sons, London, 1841.
[44] Philip Atkinson, "Elements of Static Electricity," W. J. Johnston Company, New York, 1896. Has good descriptions of the classic machines and other devices.
[45] H. Wommelsdorf, "Die Kondensatormaschine mit Doppeldrehung," Dr. Ing. thesis, Königlischen Technischen Hochshule zu Berlin, 1904. Thesis describing condenser machines with double rotation, or improved Wimshurst machines.
[46] Berliner Elektros Gesellschaft, "Manual of Static Electricity, ~1912." Booklet describing condenser machines and other devices.
[47] Gaston Planté, "Recherches sur l'Électricité : de 1859 à 1879," Gauthier-Villars, 1883. Describes the rheostatic machine, and other devices.
[48] J. C. Poggendorff, "Biographisch-Literarisches Handwörterbuch der exakten Naturwissenschaften," Verlag von Johann Ambrosius Barth, Leipzig, 1863, continuously updated with new biographies since then, presently by Wiley VCH, Berlin. Excellent reference work for biograpies of scientists and researchers.
[49] Karl Kehrle, "Experimente mit selbstgebauten Influenzmaschinen," Franzis' Verlag GmbH, Germany, 2003. Describes the construction of two powerful motorized Wimshurst machines, with and without sectors, and several experiments.
[50] Sigaud de la Fond, "Précis historique et expérimental des phénomènes électriques, "2nd. ed., Paris, 1785.
[51] Joseph Priestley,"Histoire de l'électricité," translated from the English, Paris 1771.
[52] William Watson, "Expériences et observations pour servir à l'explication de la nature et des propriétés de l'électricité," Paris, 1748.
[53] Francis Hauksbee, "Experiences Psysico-Mechaniques sur différens sujets, Et principalement sur la Lumiere et l'Electricité, produites par le frottement des Corps" Paris, 1754. French translation from the English original (1709).
[54] P. A. Daguin, "Traité Élémentaire de Physique," Typographie de Bonnal et Gibrac, Toulouse, 1856. Contains a rare discussion about doublers (II, p. 392).
[55] G. C. Bohnenberger, "Beschreibung unterschiedlicher Elektrizitätsverdoppler von einer neuen Einrichtung, nebst einer Anzahl von Versuchen über verschiedene Gegenstände der Elektrizitätslehre," F. G. Gottaschen Buchhandlung, Tübingen, 1798. Has descriptions of several types of doublers. Plates: I, II, III, IV, V 1.
[56] A. Bennet, "New Experiments on Electricity, " Derby, 1789. Has descriptions of the gold foil electroscope, and the doublers of Bennet and Nicholson, with many experiments done with them. A transcription of the book is available here.
[57] Tiberius Cavallo, "A complete treatise of electricity," C. Dilly, London, 1795. Contains a good description of doublers, and of the multiplier invented by Cavallo. Several editions are available at Google Books, but they appear to be incomplete, or without pictures. The pictures of the fourth edition (3 volumes) are these.
[58] Albéric Roussel, "La Franklinisation réhabilitée," O. Doin (Paris), 1904. Contains descriptions and pictures of some machines used for electrotherapy. Attributes the idea of the sectorless machine to Truchot.
[59] K. G. Beauchamp, "Exhibiting electricity," IET, 1997.
[60] Giuseppe Belli, "Corso elementare di fisica sperimentale," Vol. III. Società tipografica de' classici italiani, 1838. This the volume about static electricity of the book. The first two volumes were published in 1830 and 1831.
[61] A. F. Collins, "Wireless telegraphy," McGraw, New York, 1905.
[62] A. W. Marshall, "The Wimshurst machine, how to make and use it," Spon and Chamberlain, 1908. A classical book about the Wimshurst machine, with plans for several versions and construction tips.
[63] J. Cuthbertson, "Practical electricity and galvanism," J. Callow, London, 1807. Describes its plate machine and many experiments. Local copy with pictures from the second edition.
[64] Reiniger, Gebbert & Schall, "Elektro-medizinische Apparate und ihre Handhabung," 1905. Trade catalog, showing the rare Schall machine.
[65]Gustav Heinrich Wiedemann, "Die Lehre von der Elektricität," F. Vieweg und Sohn, 1893. Contains another version of the doubler shown in Mascart's book (p. 150).
[66]Ignaz G. Wallentin, "Die Generatoren hochgespannter Elektricität," A. Hartleben's Verlag, 1884. Electrostatic and other high-voltage generators. Some material similar to Gray's book..

See also these papers and patents.

The ray-tracing drawings were made with Pov-Ray.
Many of the books above I found at the Rare Book Library, at the Technology Center of UFRJ.
Some links above point to digital libraries where the original books, and many others about early electricity, can be found, as the site of Gallica, of the Conservatoire numérique des Arts et Métiers, and Google Books (Some not available in certain countries. Use a proxy in the USA).
1 Scans by Jørgen from Andersen

Developed and Maintained by Antonio Carlos M. de Queiroz.
Created: 1996.
Last update: 19 March 2017.